Just like in the Muggle world people need to go to school and get good marks to get good jobs. That’s not saying that people who have good marks are promised to get a good job or that someone with bad marks is destined to have a bad job. There are many different jobs in the wizarding world from being the Minister of Magic, somewhat of the president of the wizarding world, to Teachers at Hogwarts to even just shop helpers on Diagon Alley. There are different jobs for different types of people, someone who is particularly adept at potions could work at an apothecary or someone who has excellent marks and are particularly brave could make a perfect Auror while someone who has been a thief their entire life could make an adequate Bus Driver for the Night Bus. Just like the more reputable careers of the Wizarding World like jobs within the Ministry of Magic or a Teacher and there are other jobs that aren’t so reputable such as working as a Death Eater or an Illegal Smuggler who sells highly valuable and illegal items such as Dragon Eggs or certain poisons or potions.
There would also be summer jobs for students or part time jobs for people who simply need another job. An Assistant at a Wand Shop or a Potion Shop would be perfect for a young Wizard who wants to find out about the world of working in the Wizarding World.
There are some jobs that have very specific prerequisites or assets such as Gringotts only hiring Goblins for the most part and in the Muggle world with the way things are now this wouldn’t be allowed where an employer would be able to hire people based on the workers race instead of the workers ability. The jobs in the Wizarding world wouldn’t be too different from Muggle jobs in the sense that a lot of jobs would be related, they just need to be ramped up because Wizards have the means to do so. Such as the Wizarding world has Aurors the Muggle world has Police Officers and in the Wizarding world they would have jobs exactly like the ones that there are in the Muggle world such as Shop Clerks,Judges, Taxi Services and even Animal Breeders. Wizards would be able to do Muggle jobs with no problem at all but Muggles would have an overwhelming struggle to try and do jobs in the Wizarding world.
Although Wizards have vastly different jobs than Muggles the same problems still occur such as spies in the government or people trying to take over the highest position in the government. Wizards to however have some relations to very important Muggles such as certain ministers and mayors in order to try and have some grip on the affairs of the Muggle worlds. Some Wizards might end up very high the chain of careers due to hard work and such and as a counterpoint to that some Wizards might end up on the very bottom end of the chain due to slacking and laziness. The difference between the potential hazards of the jobs of the Wizarding world and the jobs of the Muggle world is how easy it is to recover from the potential hazards. If a Muggle were to break their legs or something along those lines they run the risk of never being able to work again and risk ruining their lives. In the Wizarding world if someone was to break both of their legs they would be able to go to the Wizarding Hospital and after some immense pain they would be back to work maybe within a couple weeks.